Amravati District is located due North East of Maharashtra state having 760 37, 27”E latitude and 200 32, to 210 46, N longitude. Due North and West Madhya pradesh state border is present ,due South Akola and Yeotmal district,while towards East Nagpur and Wardha district is present. There is Satpuda range towards North of Amravati district.
The total geographical area of Amravati District is 12212 sq. km.and its only 3.97 % of Maharashtras. 75% of Amravati district covered by Deccan Trap while 25% area covered by Purna alluvium.The total area of Purna alluvium is 3053 sq.kms. out of which 1562 sq.kms area belongs to saline zone which is Quality affected area.The ground water in this area is not used for Irrigation and Drinking water purposes, Where as North East part of district there is high irrigation activity mainly orange fruit crop which develop imbalance in ground water.
The land utilization pattern of Amravati district is as below.
- area – 12212 sq. km.
- Forest area – 3577 sq.km.
- Cultivable area-7407 sq.km.
The district mainly divided into two geographical regions, the Melghat hilly area of Satpuda range and plain area. The prominent hill range in the District is the Gawilgarh hill which are located in the North West of district in Melghat area of Chikhaldara tahsil.
The plain area may be Subdivied into further subtypes
- The piedement belt of light & medium black soils with pebble/boulder zone, with abundant ground water supplies, sloping away from Satpuda range.
- The region of deep & fertile soils of the South West where the sub-soil water is very often saline.
- The region of light red & medium black soils are atof Eastern Amravati & Chandur rly.
- patches of fertile black soil adjoing to Morshi & Warud area.
The crests of this range attain an average elevation about 1000 mts, the highest point being Vairat at a height of 1177.75 mts,this is step slope area.Others on an average height of 50 -100 mts extending eastwards
Rainfall and Temperature
The climate of this district is hot and dry.The year is divided into three seasons, cold season is from November to February,hot season is from March to May and the monsoon season is from June to October. The area recives rainfall during southwest monsoon.The average rainfall 700-800 m.m. The maximum tempreture during summer goes upto 460c while the minimum temperature during winter drops to 50- 90 c.
River and Drainage pattern
There are three main river Tapi, Purna and Wardha .The Purna rises in the southern slopes of Gavilgarh hills and flows southunly &S-E direction till it turns Westward and from a part of the district boundary between Amravati & Akola.Pedhi ,Arna, Chandrabhaga and the Shahnur are imp ortant tributaries of Purna.The Wardha river rises at Multai in Madhya pradesh and from the eastern boundary of district and receives a number of short tributaries at its right flowing within district Maru And Chargar are important tributaries that join Wardha. The Tapi flows a long the N-W boundary of the district Khardu, Sipna, Dewal & Dhulghat are its tributaries.
Mainly area shows dendritic drainage pattern,while Purna alluvium basin cover parallel to sub parallel drainage pattern & is almost plain area.
Details of river given below
|Sr. no||River||% of slope||Length||Altitude range|
|1||Tapi||1.6%||48 km.||381m to 305 m|
|2||Purna||1.7%||105 km||425m to 245 m|
|3||Wardha||1.3%||173 km||487 m to 259 m|
- Run off area – 3088 sq. kms(25%)
- Recharge area– 4191 sq. kms(34%)
- Storage area – 4930 sq. kms(41%)
Geology and Geomorphology
Northen part of district is mostly hilly area & covered by forest. The North West part is cover by thick forest of sagwan tree.The central part is cover by Purna alluvium,Total area is 3053 sq km. With slope NS 9 m. depth to 15 km while EW slope 15 m deep to 15 km. The Purna alluvium consist of silt, clay, sand, while Bazada zone foothill portion of Satpuda range covers part of Anjangaon surji, Achalpur&Chandur Bazar taluka consisting of clay, boulders & pebbles. The total coverage of this area is 25% while other 75% area is Deccan trap mostly jointed, vesicular basalt type.
|UpperCretaceous-Lower Eocene||Basalt(Deccan trap)|
G.S.D.A. has establised a hydro meteorological station in 1994 at Benoda taluka Warud at 85 km from Amravati.The following data collected for various hydrometeorological parameters is as fallows
- Rainfall (in m.m )by rain guage.
- Relative humidity (in %) by Stevenson screen.
- Tempreture( in 0c )
- Evaporation, by pan evaporation.
- Wind velocity, by annmometer.
- Wind direction, by wind vane.
- Runoff by water level recorder.
A river gauging station is also established on Dhavalgiri river due South of HMS at 0.5 km & continuous water level recorder is fixed on gauge well.
Depth and yield range
The storage capacity & the Transmisivity of the basalt flows are not uniform. It changes from place to place and flow to flow in the vertical direction. The latral flow contineses for considerable distance while the weathered residue is thick or vesicular zones spreads uniformly,while fractures, joints have high degree of interconnection.In the Deccan trap area the primary porosity is due to presence of interconnected vesicles when is not filled by secondary material while secondary porosity is develop due to weathered,cooling joints and fractures.
In alluvium area the sandy zone becomes a good aquifer having good porosity and permeability.The ground water is tapped by the tube wells in this area.
Most of the villages in talukas like Daryapur,Bhatkuli,Anjangaon and Chandur Bazar are having saline ground water and these talukas are dominantly covered by Alluvium.
Statement of observation well data (Static Water Levels In Observation Wells)
|Sr.No.||Taluka||Last 5 Years Average
|S.W.L. Month March 2010
|Difference in Average
(In Meters) (3-4)
In Amravati District Under Hydrology project,171 observation well Selected on the basis of morphological classifiction Which quaterly manual monitor in month October, December,March & May. Beside this 55 peizometer drilled for monitoring shallow & deep water laval monthly & update this data into GEMS. This information used for further study Undergroundwater quality and monitoring system, 150 water quality station selected which divided on the basis of water quality, such as BS-station, TS- station and T- station. Annually water sample taken for chemical bacteriological analysis.Declineing trend shown by hydro graph station Dhanora,Taluka Morshi is as follows-
Shivkalin Pani Sathwan Yojana
Shivkalin Pani Sathwan Yojana started in 2002.Basic aim of this scheme is to strengthen the existing drinking water sources by taking various water conservation structures like Cement bandhara ,Dug Well deepning,Rain Water Harvesting,Village Tank and Unconventional measures like Bore Blast Technique,Stream Blast Technique,Jacket Well,Fracture Seal Cementation etc.
Till this date out of 595 measures, 463 measures are completed in 118 villages.Details of completed measures are as follows-
|Total Villages||Sanctioned Schemes||Schemes Completed|
|Rain water Harvesting-372|
|Un Conventional Measures-1|
|Dug Well Deepning-28|
Local Ground water Survey(L.G.W.)
L.G.W.Survey for the site selection of Irrigation Dug and Wells & Tube wells is carried out by this office.For site selection farmers/Individual has to pay prescribed fee of Rs.1000/- by Chalan in Government Account.
Rajiv Gandhi National Drinking Water Mission(RGDWM)
Under Rajiv Gandhi National Drinking Water Mission(RGDWM)detailed Hydrological,Geological,Geomorphological and Structural Survey of Amravati district has been carried out in collaboration with Maharashtra State Remote Sensing Application Centure,Nagpur with the help of representative dug wells, bore wells and tube wells.
Detailed Geological and Geo-Hydrological survey for each sand case has, carried by this office every year and caution has been taken that there will not be any depletion in ground water level due to excessive sand mining.
This is an ideal small water supply scheme in which small villages having high yielding bore wells are covered.In this scheme small 1 HP pump is inserted in high yielding bore well with hand pump and attached to 5000 liters tank.In this scheme both hand pump and motor pump can use simultaneously.Six dual pumps are installed by this office and 52 such schemes are on going.
Ground Water Assessment
On the basis of GEC-97 guide lines,Ground Water Assessment has been carried out by this office after every 5 years. Recently 7th Ground Water Assessment has been completed by this office, major findings of which are as follows-
As per 7 th Ground Water Assesment
- WR-1, Taluka Warud
- WR-2, Taluka Warud
- WR- 3, Taluka Warud/ Morshi
- WRB-2, Taluka Nandgaon Khan.
- WRC-1, Taluka Chandur Bz/ Morshi
- PT-2, Taluka Chandur Bz/Daryapur/Achlpur
- PTP-2,Taluka Chandur Bz/Bhatkuli
- PT-20, Taluka Chandur Bz/Bhatkuli
- PTC-2,Taluka Chikhaldara,Anjangaon,Achalpur,Daryapur
- PTCS-1, Taluka Chikhaldara,Achalpur
- PTCS-2, Taluka Achalpur,Daryapur,Chandur bazaar
- PTP-3, Taluka Chandur bazaar,Bhatkuli
- PTP-6, Taluka Amravati,Morshi
- WRB-1, Taluka Nandgaon Khandeshwar,Amravati
- WRB-11, Taluka Nandgaon Khandeshwar,Chandur Railway